People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment, including needles and syringes, for each injection and not sharing drug using equipment and drug solutions. Treatment of dependence, and in particular opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids, also helps reduce the risk of HIV transmission and supports adherence to HIV treatment. A comprehensive package of interventions for HIV prevention and treatment includes:
needle and syringe programmes;
opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids and other evidence-based drug dependence treatment;
HIV testing and counselling;
HIV treatment and care;
risk-reduction information and education and provision of naloxone;
access to condoms; and
management of STIs, tuberculosis and viral hepatitis.